Reverse Outlines: A Writer's Technique for Examining Organization

From  http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/ReverseOutlines.html

 

Many writers use a reverse outline to check their work. Reverse outlining is a process whereby you take away all of the supporting writing and are left with a paper's main points or main ideas, sometimes represented by your paper's topic sentences. Your reverse outline provides a bullet-point view of your paper's structure because you are looking at the main points of the paper you wrote.

 

Experienced writers, especially when writing longer papers about a complex subject, need ways to test their drafts for the logical sequence of points: its structure. A reverse outline allows writers to read a condensed version of what they wrote, and provides one good way to examine and produce a successful paper.

 

A reverse outline can help you:

 

  • Determine if your paper meets its goal

 

  • Discover places to expand on your evidence or analysis

 

  • See where readers might be tripped up by your organization or structure

 

How to create a reverse outline:

 

1.)  Start with a complete draft to have a fuller picture of the plan you carried out. You can use a partial draft to review the organization of the paragraphs you have written so far.

 

2.)  Construct the outline by listing the main idea of each paragraph in your draft in a blank document. If a paragraph's topic sentence provides a succinct version of the paragraph's argument, you can paste that sentence into the outline as a summary for that paragraph. Otherwise, write a one-sentence summary in 5 to 10 words to express the main point of the paragraph.

 

3.) Number your list for ease of reference.

 

Use your reverse outline to answer questions:

Does every paragraph relate back to your main idea?

 

Your reverse outline will help you think more effectively about your paper's focus: its big picture. Does every item on your list relate back to your main point?

 

Many writers find that new ideas or topics appear near the end of a reverse outline. These topic shifts may signal that you need to revise certain paragraphs in you draft to be sure they relate back to your main idea, or they may inspire you to revise your main idea so it takes on some of the new points these paragraphs suggest.

 

By viewing the structure of your paper from the vantage of a reverse outline, you can make productive decisions about whether to keep certain paragraphs or cut them from a draft.

 

Where might a reader have trouble following the order of your ideas?

 

You can use a reverse outline to review a paper's organization or structure and then make strategic choices for rearranging the paper on a paragraph-by-paragraph basis, or for adding or removing paragraphs to improve organization.

 

Do several of your paragraphs repeat one idea?

 

If your reverse outline shows two paragraphs that make similar points, consider combining them or revising one so that it does not make too similar a point.

 

Does one paragraph juggle several topics?

 

If one item on your reverse outline discusses more topics than other paragraphs, that may be a paragraph your reader will struggle to follow. By dividing its topics into two or more paragraphs, each one discussing a more focused topic or set of topics, you may be able to ensure that your reader follows your meaning.

 

Are your paragraphs too long? Too short?

 

By comparing total paragraphs to total pages, you can learn your average paragraph length and more easily spot paragraphs that are unusually long or short.

 

If you can't complete each step in 5-10 words, the paragraph may need to be altered. You should be able to summarize the topic and the manner of support quickly; if you can't, revise the paragraph until you can.

 

Why and How to Create a Useful Outline

From  https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/544/02/

 

Why create an outline? There are many reasons; but in general, it may be helpful to create an outline when you want to show the hierarchical relationship or logical ordering of information. For research papers, an outline may help you keep track of large amounts of information. For creative writing, an outline may help organize the various plot threads and help keep track of character traits. Many people find that organizing an oral report or presentation in outline form helps them speak more effectively in front of a crowd.

 

Below are the primary reasons for creating an outline.

  • Aids in the process of writing
  • Helps you organize your ideas

 

  • Presents your material in a logical form

 

  • Shows the relationships among ideas in your writing

 

  • Constructs an ordered overview of your writing

 

  • Defines boundaries and groups

 

How do I create an outline?

  • Determine the purpose of your paper.
  • Determine the audience you are writing for.
  • Develop the thesis of your paper.

 

Then:

 

  • Brainstorm: List all the ideas that you want to include in your paper.
  • Organize: Group related ideas together.
  • Order: Arrange material in subsections from general to specific or from abstract to concrete.
  • Label: Create main and sub headings.

 

Remember: creating an outline before writing your paper will make organizing your thoughts a lot easier. Whether you follow the suggested guidelines is up to you, but making any kind of outline (even just some jotting down some main ideas) will be beneficial to your writing process.